History of Lutsk

History of Lutsk

"Who could pass Lutsk, the city of a song is worthy" (Sebastian Klonovіts).

It is widely spoken that, the history of emergence and development of the city is answer to many questions, concerning way and lifestyle of locals, their occupations, hobbies, mentality. Therefore it is useful to know history of the city. So, the city of Lutsk - one of the most ancient cities of Ukraine. Because of a successful geographical position (on crossing of trade ways which conducted to the countries of the West and Baltic) Lutsk gradually became the important economic center.

The first mention of the city appeared in the Ipatyevsky chronicle in 1085, at that time when internal wars by Yaroslav the Wise's descendants were waged. Archaeological researches give the grounds to consider hail emergence about 1000 years ago when Vladimir Veliky attached Volhynia to Kievan Rus' and constructed the strong fortress which within 6 weeks held a siege of the Polish king. Names of the city of Lutsk too strike with the ambiguity. There are some hypotheses concerning a city origin. Here are some samples, according to one assumption, the name comes from the word "onions", that is "A river bend", on other hypothesis – is connected with a name of the leader of duleb Luka who founded this city, still the widespread version is ancient names "Luchesk" or "Louchesk". Duleba or Luciana were the first residents. From the word "luchane" some researchers treat a name origin. Locals says : "In Lutsk all not properly: around water, and in the middle trouble".

Today Lutsk is a regional center, and in far 1340 the city received the status of the capital of the Galitsko-Volynsky principality. Then the residence of the prince Lyubart – the Lutsk lock was built. The board of the prince Lyubart brought many changes in a development of the city, in particular having concentrated all governing bodies: administrative, church, judicial. Besides, the prince in a new way started building defensive strengthenings, applying thus bricks instead of wood. Thus fortresses became strong and could maintain long time attack of enemies. Many Armenians who were the main builders mainly of all stone constructions of Lutsk, Lviv, Kamentsa-Podolsky arrived at the time of board of the Lithuanian prince Vitovt. 1493 year has a a significance for Lutsk, as the city was host place for most of european monks which were gathereing to discuss defence issue agains Ottoman conquerors. In three years after congress Lutsk petty bourgeoises acquired the Magdebourg right which recovered political and economic life of the population a little. Locals received rights to select self-government institutions and had opportunity to organize three fairs in a year. After the Lublin union of 1569 Lutsk got under the power of Poland and became the center of the neogenic Volynsk voivodeship and the residence of voivodes. From the moment of the birth of the union strong Catholic activity has began to reign in Volyn. Jesuits start coming to Lutsk, open the schools and even organize the higher scientific institution. Lutsk was not only a cultural cell, but also the developed religious center. Revival of religious life falls on 1600 when the orthodox brotherhood was based. The XVII-XVIII Century was decline period fro Lutsk. The population of the city considerably decreased due to mass fires and epidemics. since then polonisation has began: Ukrainian languagewas replaced Polish, and the Polish gentry began to hold government positions.

Lutsk was Under the power of Russians from 1795 to 1918. During this time it was the district city of the Volynsk province. Finally, within the XIX century, ruins of the old city disappear and city was being built in modern type. Noticeable economic revival in Lutsk is observed in the nineties of the last century when it was necessary branch of the Southwest railroad. Lutsk became history of World War I thanks to "Brusilovsky" or "Lutsk break" when in 1916, troops of the West Southern front struck crushing blow of the German-Austrian troops. After revolution of 1917 the blue-yellow colors are for the first time hoisted in Lutsk. In May, 1941 Lutsk appears on fire of World War II and is occupied by the German troops. During war the city underwent considerable destructions. Only from 70th years noticeable development of the industry begins: construction of the powerful enterprises and inhabited massifs. The population of the city increased to 200 thousand. Gradually started restoring city streets, outstanding constructions and buildings.

From the moment of establishing independence by Ukraine, Lutsk becomes the powerful political, economic, cultural and religious center of Volhyn. The city is constantly improved and restored.

Lutsk is the city where the history and the people intertwined!